Despite large gaps in scientific understanding of the impacts of offshore wind farms identified in a sweeping study released by the US government, scientists insist enough data has been accumulated to support the Biden administration's 30GW by 2030 target.

“We have close to 20 years now of facilities operating in the North Sea,” said Brian Hooker, lead biologist for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)'s renewable energy programme, referring to western Europe, which has generated a "wealth of knowledge.”