Giles Dickson, CEO of European industry advocacy group WindEurope, searches for an epitomic example. “In Italy, the photocopying costs for one onshore wind farm can be €40,000 ($45,000). It’s all done on paper. This is 2022... ,” he finally says.

Dickson, who took on the top job at WindEurope in 2015, has become all-too-familiar with the Kafkaesque bureaucracy facing those who want to build a wind farm in Italy, but nonetheless gives a brief disbelieving shake of the head.