Offshore wind farms are “increasingly probable” targets of terrorist attacks – for example by aerial or submarine drones – and defence systems are urgently needed to protect them as critical national infrastructure, a Polish study warns.

The sabotage explosions at the Nord Stream 1 and 2 gas pipelines under the Baltic Sea in September and the “current geopolitical situation” have highlighted the threat to offshore wind projects, lieutenant commander Tomasz Chyła, an expert at the Ignacy Lukasiewicz Institute for Energy Policy in Rzeszów and lecturer at the Polish Naval Academy, said in an analysis of the issue.