The US Department of Energy (DoE) found large gaps in research previously completed on transmission upgrades to incorporate more than 25GW of floating wind capacity into underdeveloped grids on the West Coast.

The West Coast Offshore Wind Transmission Literature and Gaps Analysis, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the DoE, reviewed 13 studies by various governmental and industry organisations, including the California independent systems operator (Caiso), Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), the Schatz Energy Research Centre at California State University at Humboldt, and others.