This article is part of an in-depth special report on green hydrogen

Japan is dependent on overseas fossil fuels for about 94% of its primary energy supply after the country’s U-turn on nuclear power (following the 2011 Fukushima disaster), and it has little space for large-scale deployment of onshore wind and solar. So the country has decided that if it can’t build a carbon-free society for itself, it will base its future economy on hydrogen — most of which will have to be imported.