The government is slated to pay Germany’s main utilities €2.29bn ($2.73bn) in compensation for unsold electricity in the wake of the country’s nuclear phase-out, with the bulk of payments going to Vattenfall and RWE.

The payments are laid down in the cornerstones of an understanding between Berlin and the utilities that aims at terminating years-long legal battles. Germany’s constitutional court in 2016 and 2020 had ruled in favour of compensation, but also said the government’s decision to exit atomic power is legal.