Local opposition and cultural resistance came sharply into focus when a panel at the World Economic Forum in Davos was asked to contemplate the challenges to a global pledge to triple renewables capacity over the next six years, with Iberdrola boss Ignacio Galan warning that big utilities have been guilty of "arrogance" in presenting their projects.

The commitment to triple renewables capacity by 2030 was made by 120 nations at last month's COP28 event in Dubai, and was included in the final agreement from the climate summit.