After months of wrangling, the European Council has finally adopted wide-ranging amendments to the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED) that include a binding 2030 target of 42.5% renewables – measured as gross energy consumption – up from a previous goal of 32% and eased permitting for wind power.

A ‘top-up’ of another 2.5% in the goal is supposed to be reached through voluntary contributions by member states.